Abjad B

JEJAK
MAHASISWA
..:: KAMUS BIOLOGI JEJAK MAHASISWA ::..
Dibuat
12/19/2011
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Glosarium ini diambil dari Buku Biologi Campbell | Jejak Mahasiswa

B cell 
A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity.
bacteria 
The domain name for the eubacteria.
bacterium 
(plural, bacteria) A prokaryotic microorganism in Domain Bacteria.
balanced polymorphism 
A type of polymorphism in which the frequencies of the coexisting forms do not change noticeably over many generations.
bark 
All tissues external to the vascular cambium in a plant growing in thickness, consisting of phloem, phelloderm, cork cambium, and cork.
Barr body 
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome.
basal metabolic rate 
(BMR) The minimal number of kilocalories a resting animal requires to fuel itself for a given time.
base
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
basement membrane 
The floor of an epithelial membrane on which the basal cells rest.
base-pair substitution 
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner from the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
basidium 
(plural, basidia) A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms. The fungal division Basidiomycota is named for this structure.
Batesian mimicry 
(BAYTZ-ee-un MIM-ih-kree) A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a different species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
behavioral ecology 
A heuristic approach based on the expectation that Darwinian fitness (reproductive success) is improved by optimal behavior.
benthic zone 
The bottom surfaces of aquatic environments.
biennial 
(by-EN-ee-ul) A plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.
bilateral symmetry 
Characterizing a body form with a central longitudinal plane that divides the body into two equal but opposite halves.
bilateria 
(BY-leh-TEER-ee-uh) Members of the branch of eumetazoans possessing bilateral symmetry.
binary fission 
The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce; each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.
binomial 
The two-part Latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet.
bioenergetics 
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
biogeochemical cycles 
The various nutrient circuits, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.
biogeography 
The study of the past and present distribution of species.
biological magnification 
A trophic process in which retained substances become more concentrated with each link in the food chain.
biological species 
A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed.
biomass 
The dry weight of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat.
biome 
(BY-ome) One of the world's major communities, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment.
biosphere 
(BY-oh-sfeer) The entire portion of Earth that is inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's communities and ecosystems.
biotechnology 
The industrial use of living organisms or their components to improve human health and food production.
biotic 
(by-OT-ik) Pertaining to the living organisms in the environment.
blastocoel 
(BLAS-toh-seel) The fluid-filled cavity that forms in the center of the blastula embryo.
blastocyst 
An embryonic stage in mammals; a hollow ball of cells produced one week after fertilization in humans.
blastopore 
(BLAS-toh-por) The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes.
blastula 
(BLAS-tyoo-la) The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development.
blood pressure 
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
blood 
A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are suspended.
blood-brain barrier 
A specialized capillary arrangement in the brain that restricts the passage of most substances into the brain, thereby preventing dramatic fluctuations in the brain's environment.
bond energy 
The quantity of energy that must be absorbed to break a particular kind of chemical bond; equal to the quantity of energy the bond releases when it forms.
book lungs 
Organs of gas exchange in spiders, consisting of stacked plates contained in an internal chamber.
bottleneck effect 
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
Bowman's capsule 
(BOH-munz) A cup-shaped receptacle in the vertebrate kidney that is the initial, expanded segment of the nephron where filtrate enters from the blood.
brain stem 
The hindbrain and midbrain of the vertebrate central nervous system. In humans, it forms a cap on the anterior end of the spinal cord, extending to about the middle of the brain.
brain 
The master control center in an animal; in vertebrates, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system.
bryophyte 
(BRY-oh-fites) The mosses, liverworts, and hornworts; a group of nonvascular plants that inhabit the land but lack many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
budding 
An asexual means of propagation in which outgrowths from the parent form and pinch off to live independently or else remain attached to eventually form extensive colonies.
buffer 
A substance that consists of acid and base forms in solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
bulbourethral gland 
(BUL-bo-you-REE-thral) One of a pair of glands near the base of the penis in the human male that secrete fluid that lubricates and neutralizes acids in the urethra during sexual arousal.
bulk flow 
The movement of water due to a difference in pressure between two locations.

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