Abjad G

JEJAK
MAHASISWA
..:: KAMUS BIOLOGI JEJAK MAHASISWA ::..
Dibuat
12/19/2011
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Glosarium ini diambil dari Buku Biologi Campbell | Jejak Mahasiswa


G protein
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma-membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein linked receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein , causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein.
G1 phase
The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
G2 phase
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
gametangium
(GAM-eh-TANJ-ee-um) (plural, gametangia) The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
gamete
(GAM-eet) A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
gametophyte
(guh-MEE-toh-fite) The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations, which mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
ganglion
(GANG-lee-un) (plural, ganglia) A cluster (functional group) of nerve cell bodies in a centralized nervous system.
gap junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
gastrin
A digestive hormone, secreted by the stomach, that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.
gastrovascular cavity
The central digestive compartment, usually with a single opening that functions as both mouth and anus.
gastrula
(GAS-troo-la) The two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage.
gastrulation
(GAS-truh-LAY-shun) The formation of a gastrula from a blastula.
gated ion channel
A specific ion channel that opens and closes to allow the cell to alter its membrane potential.
gel electrophoresis
(JELL eh-LEK-troh-for-EE-sis) The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
gene amplification
The selective synthesis of DNA, which results in multiple copies of a single gene, thereby enhancing expression.
gene cloning
The production of multiple copies of a gene.
gene flow
The loss or gain of alleles from a population due to the emigration or immigration of fertile individuals, or the transfer of gametes, between populations.
gene pool
The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time.
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
genetic drift
Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance.
genetic recombination
The general term for the production of offspring that combine traits of the two parents.
genome
(JEE-nome) The complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material.
genomic imprinting
The parental effect on gene expression. Identical alleles may have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
genomic library
A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector.
genotype
(JEE-noh-type) The genetic makeup of an organism.
genus
(JEE-nus) (plural, genera) A taxonomic category above the species level, designated by the first word of a species' binomial Latin name.
geographical range
The geographic area in which a population lives.
geological time scale
A time scale established by geologists that reflects a consistent sequence of historical periods, grouped into four eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.
gibberellin
(JIB-ur-EL-ins) A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin.
gill
A localized extension of the body surface of many aquatic animals, specialized for gas exchange.
glial cell
(GLEE-ul) A nonconducting cell of the nervous system that provides support, insulation, and protection for the neurons.
glomerulus
(glum-AIR-yoo-lus) A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
glucagon
A peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin.
glucocorticoid
A corticosteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences glucose metabolism and immune function.
glycocalyx
(GLY-koh-KAY-liks) A fuzzy coat on the outside of animal cells, made of sticky oligosaccharides.
glycogen
(GLY-koh-jen) An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
glycolysis
(gly-KOL-eh-sis) The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Golgi apparatus
(GOAL-jee) An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
gonadotropins
(goh-NAD-oh-TROH-pinz) Hormones that stimulate the activities of the testes and ovaries; a collective term for follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.
gonads
(GOH-nadz) The male and female sex organs; the gamete-producing organs in most animals.
graded potential
A local voltage change in a neuron membrane induced by stimulation of a neuron, with strength proportional to the strength of the stimulus and lasting about a millisecond.
gradualism
A view of Earth's history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes.
Gram stain
A staining method that distinguishes between two different kinds of bacterial cell walls.
granum
(GRAN-um) (plural, grana) A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
gravitropism
(GRAV-eh-TROH-piz-um) A response of a plant or animal in relation to gravity.
greenhouse effect
The warming of planet Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, which absorbs infrared radiation and slows its escape from the irradiated Earth.
gross primary productivity
(GPP) The total primary productivity of an ecosystem.
ground meristem
A primary meristem that gives rise to ground tissue in plants.
ground tissue system
A tissue of mostly parenchyma cells that makes up the bulk of a young plant and fills the space between the dermal and vascular tissue systems.
growth factor
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.
guard cell
A specialized epidermal plant cell that forms the boundaries of the stomata.
guttation
The exudation of water droplets caused by root pressure in certain plants.
gymnosperm
(JIM-noh-spurm) A vascular plant that bears naked seeds not enclosed in any specialized chambers.


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